Secure Advanced NOMA


Novel Advanced Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Schemes for Enhancing Communication Security and Reliability of Future Low-complexity, Massive Machine-Type Communications

Project Summary: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has received significant attention for 5G and beyond wireless communication systems due to its unique properties and favorable features such as high spectral efficiency, low latency, improved coverage, massive connectivity, fairness, and so on. These multiple obtained advantages provided by NOMA make it a suitable candidate scheme for future massive machine type communication (m-MTC) to be served and provided by 5G and beyond networks. (Challenges) However, the conventional NOMA scheme in its current form, which has already been adopted under the name MUST (multi-user superposition transmission) in the 3GPP standard release 13 [LTE Advanced Pro.] and is being improved in terms of receiver design so that it can be included in 3GPP-release 16 [5G], suffers from the following security risks and drawbacks: How are these challenges addressed in the literature? (Originality) The conventional solutions adopted by the industry to provide secure communication in NOMA and other wireless technologies are based on cryptography. However, these solutions are deemed not suitable for NOMA communication due to many reasons related to the extreme difficulties that would be encountered in key sharing, management, and maintenance processes for a massive number of low-complexity devices (e.g., IoT). This would result in creating signaling overhead, delay, and complexity, which are conflicting with the IoT requirements represented by simplicity, low complexity, and high-power efficiency. To address this challenge, researchers have recently proposed the use of physical layer security schemes due to their features that can fit the NOMA-mMTC requirements. However, the existing physical layer security schemes for NOMA in the literature are either limited to the case of external eavesdropping and not capable of providing perfect secrecy or based on cryptography-based approaches that require key sharing and high processing and computing capabilities. (Novel problem statement - research question) To the best of our knowledge, there are no available physical layer security schemes for NOMA in the literature that can provide perfect secrecy at the physical layer against both external and internal eavesdroppers simultaneously without using key sharing and encryption. What are we proposing? In this project proposal, we propose novel advanced NOMA (A-NOMA) schemes and designs that can simultaneously address the previously mentioned security problems associated with conventional NOMA. How do the proposed methods work in the considered system model? Particularly, we propose two main approaches: 1- advanced NOMA with special signal precoding, 2) advanced NOMA with auxiliary signal superposition, where each approach is intended to be designed for the scenarios of SISO (with time diversity enabled by ARQ) and MISO (with spatial diversity, enabled by transmitting the same composite signal from different antennas). This will result in generating four novel designs, that will be implemented by means of simulations, and then deeply investigated and analyzed. What are the other advantages and trade-offs of the proposed methods? Besides the capability of the proposed schemes in providing robust, perfect physical layer security against both external and internal eavesdroppers simultaneously without using key sharing or encryption, it is expected that these schemes can provide additional desirable advantages with respect to conventional NOMA. Particularly, the proposed designs can solve the following main drawbacks related to conventional NOMA: The reliability performance (measured by bit error rate) of receiver users in conventional NOMA scheme is lower than that of orthogonal multiple access (OMA). The proposed designs will make sure that the reliability of NOMA is the same as that of OMA. Conventional NOMA can work only for the cases when there is a significant path-loss channel difference between paired (or super-imposed) users. This necessitates having a user near the base station (i.e., strong channel) and another user far from the base station (i.e., weak channel). Consequently, this limits the applicability of NOMA in general scenarios, where two users may have the same pathloss due to being located at a similar distance from the base station (BS). The proposed designs will make sure that NOMA can work for any two users, regardless of their distances from BS. Near users in conventional NOMA must use successive interference cancelation (SIC) to cancel the inter-user interference caused by the NOMA structure. This results in complicating the receiver structure and making it not very attractive for low-complexity IoT devices that have minimal processing and power resources. The proposed designs will not need SIC at the receivers due to the ability of the new schemes to cancel the interference by means of signal precoding and signal superposition.

Keywords: Wireless Security, Physical Layer Security, Wireless Communication Networks, 5G, m-MTC, IoT, Non-Orthogonal Multiple-Access (NOMA), Automatic-Repeat-Request (ARQ), SISO, MISO.

Project Outputs and Contributions

Journal Publications:

Lemayian, J. P., & Hamamreh, J. M. (2020). A Novel Small-Scale Nonorthogonal Communication Technique Using Auxiliary Signal Superposition with Enhanced Security for Future Wireless Networks. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 1(2), 2020.

Zia, M. F., & Hamamreh, J. M. (2020). An Advanced Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Security Technique for Future Wireless Communication Networks. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 1(2), 2020.

Hamamreh, J. M., Abewa, M., & Lemayian, J. P. (2020). New Non-Orthogonal Transmission Schemes for Achieving Highly Efficient, Reliable, and Secure Multi-User Communications. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 1(2), 2020.

Zia, M. F., Furqan, H. M., & Hamamreh, J. M. (2021). Multi-cell, Multi-user, and Multi-carrier Secure Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Signals’ Superposition with Dual-Transmission for IoT in 6G and Beyond. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 2(3), 2021.

Abewa, M., & Hamamreh, J. M. (2021). Multi-User Auxiliary Signal Superposition Transmission (MU-AS-ST) for Secure and Low-Complexity Multiple Access Communications. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 2(4), 2021.

Conference Publications:

Joel Lemayian, J. M. Hamamreh, “Novel Small-Scale NOMA Communication Technique Using Auxiliary Signal Superposition“, 2020 International Conference on UK-China Emerging Technologies (UCET), Aug. 2020.

H. M. Furqan, J. M. Hamamreh, H. Arslan, “Secure and Reliable IoT Communications Using Nonorthogonal Signals’ Superposition with Dual-Transmission,” IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Aug. 31 – Sep. 3, 2020.

Muhammad Furqan Zia, J. M. Hamamreh, “An Advanced NOMA Security Technique for Future Wireless Communication“, Workshop on Information and Communications Technologies, International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 17-19 Sep. 2020.

Master Theses:


Muhammad Furqan Zia, “Novel Advanced Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Security Scheme for 6G and Beyond Communication Networks”, 22-01-2021

Joel Poncha Lemayian, “UAV-based Smart Rescue System Utilizing a Novel Wireless Communication Technique With Enhanced Security Against Internal And External Attacks”, 22-01-2021

Other Related Theses:

MOHAMMED KHER NOMAN IBRAHIM HIJAZI, “Signal Space Diversity and Convolutional Neural Network Based Equalizer for Improving the Reliability Performance of OFDM with Sub-carrier Power Modulation”, 10-06-2021

ABDELRAHMAN M.A ABUQAMAR, “STBC and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for Improving the Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing with Subcarrier Power Modulation”, 10-06-2021


Training Courses and Tutorials:

A New Secure NOMA Transmission For IoT In 6G And Beyond (

A Novel NOMA Technology For Future Wireless Communications (

An Advanced NOMA Security Model For Next-Generation WI-FI Communication (